The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) instrument, the restandardized version of the original MMPI® instrument, is an empirically-based assessment of adult psychopathology. The MMPI-2 instrument, provided by NCS, is the standard that mental health professionals use to help measure psychopathology across a broad range of client settings. The MMPI-2 instrument is used by clinicians in hospitals, clinics, counseling programs, and private practice to assist with the diagnosis of mental disorders and the selection of an appropriate treatment method.

Derived from the original MMPI instrument, the MMPI-2 instrument preserves the most valuable features of the original assessment while addressing contemporary concerns to provide better descriptive and diagnostic information for clients today. The MMPI-2 instrument contains items appropriate and relevant to current test-takers. Special effort has been made to eliminate sexist wording and outmoded content. Duplicate items and items with objectionable content have also been eliminated.

The normative sample of the MMPI-2 instrument consists of 1,138 males and 1,462 females from several geographic regions and diverse communities within the U.S. The sample is much larger and more nationally representative than that of the original MMPI instrument.

MMPI-2 Quick Facts

Author Original Authors: S. R. Hathaway, PhD, and J. C. McKinley, MD

Restandardization Cmmt: James N. Butcher, PhD, W. Grant Dahlstrom, PhD, John R. Graham, PhD, and Auke Tellegen, PhD

Report Author: James N. Butcher, PhD
Publisher University of Minnesota Press
Date of Publication 1989
Appropriate Ages 18 and older
Norm Groups Nationwide adult community sample
Minimum Reading Level 6th grade
Administration Time 60-90 minutes
Assessment Length 567 True-False items
Scales Scales: 7 validity scales*
10 basic clinical scales
15 Content Scales*
27 content component scales*
18 supplementary scales*
3 social introversion scales*
28 Harris-Lingoes subscales*
10 special or setting-specific indices*
Report Options Basic Service Profile Report
Extended Score Report
Extended Score Report PLUS
The Minnesota ReportTM: Adult Clinical System-Revised Interpretive Report
The Minnesota Report: Alcohol and Drug Treatment System Report
The Minnesota Report: Revised Personnel System Interpretive Report
The Minnesota Report: Revised Personnel System Adjustment Rating Report
The Minnesota Report: Reports for Forensic Settings

*Not included in all reports

MMPI-2 About the Authors

Original Authors

Starke R. Hathaway, PhD, and J. C. McKinley, MD, were working at the University of Minnesota hospitals when the MMPI was first published in 1943.

Restandardization Committee

James N. Butcher is a professor of psychology at the University of Minnesota, W. Grant Dahlstrom is the Konan Professor of Psychology at the University of North Carolina, John R. Graham is a professor of psychology and the director of clinical training at Kent State University, and Auke Tellegen is a professor of psychology at the University of Minnesota.

Report Author

James N. Butcher is a member of the Restandardization Committee and a professor of psychology at the University of Minnesota. He founded the MMPI Symposium and Workshop continuing education series and is the author of numerous books and articles on the MMPI, MMPI-2, and MMPI-A assessments. He recently published an introductory interpretive textbook on the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A assessments with Dr. Carolyn Williams, Essentials of MMPI-2 and MMPI-A Interpretation. Dr. Butcher received his graduate training at the University of North Carolina. A consultant to the University of Minnesota Press, he also has an active clinical practice focusing on the use of the MMPI assessment.

MMPI-2 Scales

Basic Validity and Clinical Scales (All Reports)

L Lie
F Infrequency
K Correction
? Cannot Say
1 Hs Hypochondriasis
2 D Depression
3 Hy Conversion Hysteria
4 Pd Psychopathic Deviate
5 Mf Masculinity-Femininity
6 Pa Paranoia
7 Pt Psychasthenia
8 Sc Schizophrenia
9 Ma Hypomania
0 Si Social Introversion

Content Scales (Extended Score Report, Interpretive Reports, and Personnel Reports Only)

ANX Anxiety
FRS Fears
OBS Obsessiveness
DEP Depression
HEA Health Concerns
BIZ Bizarre Mentation
ANG Anger
CYN Cynicism
ASP Antisocial Practices
TPA Type A
LSE Low Self-Esteem
SOD Social Discomfort
FAM Family Problems
WRK Work Interference
TRT Negative Treatment Indicators

Content Component Scales (Extended Score Report, Interpretive Reports, and Personnel Reports Only)

FRS1 Fears: Generalized Fearfulness
FRS2 Fears: Multiple Fears
DEP1 Depression: Lack of Drive
DEP2 Depression: Dysphoria
DEP3 Depression: Self-Depreciation
DEP4 Depression: Suicidal Ideation
HEA1 Health Concerns: Gastrointestinal Symptoms
HEA2 Health Concerns: Neurological Symptoms
HEA3 Health Concerns: General Health Concerns
BIZ1 Bizarre Mentation: Psychotic Symptomatology
BIZ2 Bizarre Mentation: Schizotypal Characteristics
ANG1 Anger: Explosive Behavior
ANG2 Anger: Irritability
CYN1 Cynicism: Misanthropic Beliefs
CYN2 Cynicism: Interpersonal Suspiciousness
ASP1 Antisocial Practices: Antisocial Attitudes
ASP2 Antisocial Practices: Antisocial Behavior
TPA1 Type A: Impatience
TPA2 Type A: Competitive Drive
LSE1 Low Self-Esteem: Self-Doubt
LSE2 Low Self-Esteem: Submissiveness
SOD1 Social Discomfort: Introversion
SOD2 Social Discomfort: Shyness
FAM1 Family Problems: Family Discord
FAM2 Family Problems: Familial Alienation
TRT1 Negative Treatment Indicators: Low Motivation
TRT2 Negative Treatment Indicators: Inability to Disclose

Supplementary Scales (Extended Score Report, Interpretive Reports, and Personnel Reports Only)

TRIN True Response Inconsistency
VRIN Variable Response Inconsistency
FB Back F
A Anxiety
R Repression
O-H Overcontrol-Hostility
Do Dominance
Es Ego Strength
Re Social Responsibility
Mt College Maladjustment
MAC-R MacAndrew-Revised
AAS Addiction Admission
APS Addiction Potential
MDS Marital Distress
PS PTSD/Schlenger
GM Gender Role - Masculine
GF Gender Role - Feminine

Social Introversion Subscales

Si1 Shyness/Self-Consciousness
Si2 Social Avoidance
Si3 Alienation--Self and Others

Harris-Lingoes Subscales (Extended Score Report, Interpretive Reports, and Personnel Reports Only)

D1 Subjective Depression
D2 Psychomotor Retardation
D3 Physical Malfunction
D4 Mental Dullness
D5 Brooding
Hy1 Denial of Social Anxiety
Hy2 Need for Affection
Hy3 Lassitude-Malaise
Hy4 Somatic Complaints
Hy5 Inhibition of Aggression
Ma1 Amorality
Ma2 Psychomotor Acceleration
Ma3 Imperturbability
Ma4 Ego Inflation
Pa1 Persecutory Ideas
Pa2 Poignancy
Pa3 Naiveté
Pd1 Familial Discord
Pd2 Authority Problems
Pd3 Social Imperturbability
Pd4 Social Alienation
Pd5 Self-Alienation
Sc1 Social Alienation
Sc2 Emotional Alienation
Sc3 Lack of Ego Mastery-Cognitive
Sc4 Lack of Ego Mastery-Conative
Sc5 Lack of Ego Mastery-Defective Inhibition
Sc6 Bizarre Sensory Experiences

Special Indices (Extended Score Report, Interpretive Reports, and Personnel Reports Only If Applicable)

Welsh Code based on comparable MMPI-1 scores
Welsh Code based on MMPI-2 scores
F-K Dissimulation Index
Percentage True
Percentage False
Profile Elevation

Setting-Specific Indices (Extended Score Report and Interpretive Reports Only If Applicable)

Cooke's Disturbance Index
Goldberg Index
Henrichs Rules
Megargee Classification
P-A-I-N Classification

MMPI-2 Norm Groups

The MMPI-2 normative samples consist of 1,138 males and 1,462 females from diverse geographic regions and communities across the United States. Individuals between the ages of 18 and 80 were recruited for inclusion in the samples. The MMPI-2 Manual for Administration and Scoring describes the distributions of age, geographic location, ethnic origin, educational attainment, marital status, occupation, and income level within the male and female samples.

MMPI-2 Common Questions and Answers

What are the demographic default values for MMPI-2 Instrument?

The defaults for missing demographic data are Age: 18; Education: 12; Marital Status: Never married; Setting: Outpatient (Setting: Other on Personnel reports).

My non-K-corrected scores are higher than my K-corrected scores on the Extended Score Report and Extended Score Report PLUS. How can this be?

This will happen if the T score on K is less than 50T. The non-K-corrected score is not just the lack of the K correction. The non-K-corrected score is from a separate distribution from the K-corrected score. Refer to Appendixes A1 and A2 in the MMPI-2 manual for more information.

Why are both K- and non-K-corrected profiles provided on the Extended Score Report and Extended Score Report PLUS?

Primarily for research at this point.

Do clients need to respond to items beyond 370 to receive the basic profile on the MMPI-2 instrument?

The Basic Service Profile Report only provides information on the validity and clinical scales, and these are located in the first 370 items. Items beyond 370 will not be considered for the basic profile.

If I score an Extended Score Report and only have the patient answer the first 370 questions and use "Cannot Say" responses for the rest, will I have valid basic scales and Harris-Lingoes subscales?

Yes. These scales will be valid, but any scales with items that fall beyond 370 will not be valid (e.g., Content Scales, supplementary scales).

What scales can be scored if only the first 370 items are administered?

Basic and Harris-Lingoes.

My Extended Score Report is invalid, but it doesn't say that on the report. What is wrong?

The Extended Score Report is not an interpretive report. "Invalid" is an interpretation. It is up to the clinician to make the determination of invalidity.

What is the difference between the (Old) and (New) Welsh Codes?

(Old) refers to the original MMPI order of scale elevations from highest to lowest. (New) refers to the MMPI-2 order of scale elevations from highest to lowest. The (Old) Welsh Code is based on Appendix K in the MMPI-2 manual.

What is the difference between the MAC-R scale and the Addiction Potential Scale?

The MAC-R scale has 49 items. The newer Addiction Potential Scale has 39 items. Many of the items on the Addiction Potential Scale are different from those on the MAC-R scale. The Addiction Potential items concern personality dimensions and life situations associated with substance abuse. The Addiction Potential Scale is commonly used with the Addiction Acknowledgment Scale.

Where can I find information about the content validity, construct validity, and criterion validity of the MMPI-2 instrument?

Several of the MMPI-2 reference books have this information including John Graham's MMPI-2: Assessing Personality and Psychopathology (Oxford Press) and Jim Butcher's Essentials of MMPI-2 and MMPI-A Interpretation (University of Minnesota Press).

Are there tables in the MMPI-2 manual with conversion data for item order from MMPI to MMPI-2 instruments?

Yes, in Appendix J.

When will an MMPI-2 profile be the same as an MMPI profile?

Refer to Graham, J. T., Timbrook, R. E., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Butcher, J. N. (1991). Code-type congruence between MMPI and MMPI-2: Separating fact from artifact. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57(2), 205-215.

Can I convert MMPI-2 scores to the comparable scores on the original MMPI instrument?

Yes. You can do this using Appendix K in the MMPI-2 manual. This table converts MMPI-2 raw scores to original MMPI T scores. Make sure you have the second version of the MMPI-2 manual or the updated Appendix K for use with the first version of the manual.

Do the MMPI and MMPI-2 instruments measure PTSD?

Only the MMPI-2 instrument has PTSD scales (normed on veterans). Both of the scales appear on the Minnesota Report.

Does NCS have any information regarding the Megargee Classification System for the MMPI-2 instrument?

The Megargee Classification System was recently updated for the MMPI-2 instrument and can be applied to both male and female offenders.

Information on how the MMPI-2 Megargee Classification System rules were developed can be found in an article in the December 1993, Volume 4, Number 2 edition of the MMPI-2 News & Profile newsletter put out by MMPI-2 Workshops & Symposia at the University of Minnesota (Department of Psychology, Elliott Hall, 75 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN 55455, 612-625-2879 or FAX 612-626-0080).

What are the differences between the MMPI-2 manual and the user's guide?

The manual should be purchased with any MMPI-2 first-time order. The user's guide should be purchased with any first-time order of MMPI-2 interpretive reports. The user's guide explains the sections of the interpretive report and how they were developed.

Why don't TRIN and VRIN print out on some interpretive reports?

In the July 91 revision, TRIN and VRIN print out when the report is invalid because of a high F. If you are not getting TRIN and VRIN on the interpretive report, you may need to install more recent software or the report may be invalid for reasons other than a high F. The software is being changed so that TRIN and VRIN will always print.

Why aren't the Mf subscales available on MMPI-2 instrument?

They were changed too much in the revision; they did not measure the same constructs.

Why isn't there an Lb (Low Back Pain) scale on the MMPI-2 instrument?

Deleted items affected that scale, so it was eliminated.

What is the difference between the Keene and Schlenger PTSD scales?

The Keene differentiates PTSD patients from psychiatric patients. The Schlenger PTSD scales separate normals from PTSD patients.

Can adolescents take the MMPI-2 assessment and receive valid results?

We recommend using the MMPI-A assessment with adolescents. A cautionary statement will be generated for MMPI-2 test-takers under 19 because no adolescents were included in the normative sample.

Are there norms for different cultures on the MMPI-2 instrument?

American minorities are included in the normative sample. There are no separate culture norms.

Is the MMPI-2 instrument able to discriminate between neuropsychological disorders and conversion disorders/somatization disorders?

We will not be able to give a definitive answer until research has been done in this area.

Are all MMPI-2 scales copyrighted?


Is the MMPI-2 instrument appropriate for use with chronic pain patients?

Yes, see the Keller and Butcher book Assessment of Chronic Pain Patients With the MMPI-2.

What does the chronic pain classification 1,2,3,4,0 mean?

1=P, 2=A, 3=I, 4=N, 0=does not fit any typology; see Costello, R. M., Hulsey, T. L., Schoenfeld, L. S., & Ramamurthy, S. (1987). P-A-I-N: A four-cluster MMPI typology for chronic pain. Pain, 30, 199-209.

What is the meaning of each pain classification, P-A-I-N-0 (or 1-2-3-4-0)?

Type P: This type appears to be the most pathological of the four types. Most of the scales will be significantly elevated. Type P patients are usually the least educated and most often unemployed. They have the lowest monthly income compared to the other types. Type P patients make extreme claims about physical, psychological, and social distress.

Type A: This type is uniquely characterized by a "conversion V" on the Hs, D, and Hy scales. Type A does not have any significant demographic correlates.

Type I: This type has significant elevations only on scales Hs, D, and Hy. Type I patients seem to have chronic medical histories (i.e., multiple surgeries or hospitalizations). Type I patients may not improve physically with treatment, but they appear to experience some degree of psychological benefit.

Type N: This type has normal-range profiles. The only exception may be an elevated K. Type N patients tend to be more moderate in their health claims. Also, Type N patients tend to be employed, better educated, and more responsive to treatment than other types.

Type 0: A Pain Classification of "0" signifies that the profile did not match any of the typologies. This does not mean that chronic pain is not present. (Please note that if the L scale score is greater than 65T, the program will automatically drop through the P-A-I-N classification and the client will be classified as "0.")

Should I use the MMPI-2 instrument in light of the recent ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) and Civil Rights Act?

NCS Assessments cannot offer legal advice. Please consult your regional APA office or an attorney.

Can I still use the administrations I have for the original MMPI-2 clinical report?

Yes, you may use up administrations of the original MMPI-2 Adult Clinical Interpretive report, but we suggest you use the revised version when you reorder. The revised version preserves the valuable features of the original report and provides better description and diagnostic comment for current test-takers. Based on additional research that has been done since the MMPI-2 instrument was introduced, new narrative sections have been added such as Profile Frequency and Profile Stability. The revised report also features additional Supplementary scales like the Marital Distress Scale (MDS) and Alcohol Potential Scale (APS), and an added Validity Scale, the Superlative (S) scale. Finally, additional setting-specific indices help you fine-tune your interpretation to your patient's setting. When you place your next order for MMPI-2 Interpretive reports, remember to order the MMPI-2 Adult Clinical System - Revised Interpretive Report.

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