Derived from the original MMPI instrument, the MMPI-2 instrument preserves the most valuable features of the original assessment while addressing contemporary concerns to provide better descriptive and diagnostic information for clients today. The MMPI-2 instrument contains items appropriate and relevant to current test-takers. Special effort has been made to eliminate sexist wording and outmoded content. Duplicate items and items with objectionable content have also been eliminated.
The normative sample of the MMPI-2 instrument consists of 1,138 males and 1,462 females from several geographic regions and diverse communities within the U.S. The sample is much larger and more nationally representative than that of the original MMPI instrument.
MMPI-2 Quick Facts
|Author||Original Authors: S. R. Hathaway, PhD, and J. C. McKinley,
Restandardization Cmmt: James N. Butcher, PhD, W. Grant Dahlstrom, PhD, John R. Graham, PhD, and Auke Tellegen, PhD
Report Author: James N. Butcher, PhD
|Publisher||University of Minnesota Press|
|Date of Publication||1989|
|Appropriate Ages||18 and older|
|Norm Groups||Nationwide adult community sample|
|Minimum Reading Level||6th grade|
|Administration Time||60-90 minutes|
|Assessment Length||567 True-False items|
|Scales||Scales: 7 validity scales*|
10 basic clinical scales
15 Content Scales*
27 content component scales*
18 supplementary scales*
3 social introversion scales*
28 Harris-Lingoes subscales*
10 special or setting-specific indices*
|Report Options||Basic Service Profile Report|
Extended Score Report
Extended Score Report PLUS
The Minnesota ReportTM: Adult Clinical System-Revised Interpretive Report
The Minnesota Report: Alcohol and Drug Treatment System Report
The Minnesota Report: Revised Personnel System Interpretive Report
The Minnesota Report: Revised Personnel System Adjustment Rating Report
The Minnesota Report: Reports for Forensic Settings
*Not included in all reports
Starke R. Hathaway, PhD, and J. C. McKinley, MD, were working at the University of Minnesota hospitals when the MMPI was first published in 1943.
James N. Butcher is a professor of psychology at the University of Minnesota, W. Grant Dahlstrom is the Konan Professor of Psychology at the University of North Carolina, John R. Graham is a professor of psychology and the director of clinical training at Kent State University, and Auke Tellegen is a professor of psychology at the University of Minnesota.
James N. Butcher is a member of the Restandardization Committee and a professor of psychology at the University of Minnesota. He founded the MMPI Symposium and Workshop continuing education series and is the author of numerous books and articles on the MMPI, MMPI-2, and MMPI-A assessments. He recently published an introductory interpretive textbook on the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A assessments with Dr. Carolyn Williams, Essentials of MMPI-2 and MMPI-A Interpretation. Dr. Butcher received his graduate training at the University of North Carolina. A consultant to the University of Minnesota Press, he also has an active clinical practice focusing on the use of the MMPI assessment.
? Cannot Say
1 Hs Hypochondriasis
2 D Depression
3 Hy Conversion Hysteria
4 Pd Psychopathic Deviate
5 Mf Masculinity-Femininity
6 Pa Paranoia
7 Pt Psychasthenia
8 Sc Schizophrenia
9 Ma Hypomania
0 Si Social Introversion
HEA Health Concerns
BIZ Bizarre Mentation
ASP Antisocial Practices
TPA Type A
LSE Low Self-Esteem
SOD Social Discomfort
FAM Family Problems
WRK Work Interference
TRT Negative Treatment Indicators
FRS1 Fears: Generalized Fearfulness
FRS2 Fears: Multiple Fears
DEP1 Depression: Lack of Drive
DEP2 Depression: Dysphoria
DEP3 Depression: Self-Depreciation
DEP4 Depression: Suicidal Ideation
HEA1 Health Concerns: Gastrointestinal Symptoms
HEA2 Health Concerns: Neurological Symptoms
HEA3 Health Concerns: General Health Concerns
BIZ1 Bizarre Mentation: Psychotic Symptomatology
BIZ2 Bizarre Mentation: Schizotypal Characteristics
ANG1 Anger: Explosive Behavior
ANG2 Anger: Irritability
CYN1 Cynicism: Misanthropic Beliefs
CYN2 Cynicism: Interpersonal Suspiciousness
ASP1 Antisocial Practices: Antisocial Attitudes
ASP2 Antisocial Practices: Antisocial Behavior
TPA1 Type A: Impatience
TPA2 Type A: Competitive Drive
LSE1 Low Self-Esteem: Self-Doubt
LSE2 Low Self-Esteem: Submissiveness
SOD1 Social Discomfort: Introversion
SOD2 Social Discomfort: Shyness
FAM1 Family Problems: Family Discord
FAM2 Family Problems: Familial Alienation
TRT1 Negative Treatment Indicators: Low Motivation
TRT2 Negative Treatment Indicators: Inability to Disclose
TRIN True Response Inconsistency
VRIN Variable Response Inconsistency
FB Back F
Es Ego Strength
Re Social Responsibility
Mt College Maladjustment
AAS Addiction Admission
APS Addiction Potential
MDS Marital Distress
GM Gender Role - Masculine
GF Gender Role - Feminine
Si2 Social Avoidance
Si3 Alienation--Self and Others
D1 Subjective Depression
D2 Psychomotor Retardation
D3 Physical Malfunction
D4 Mental Dullness
Hy1 Denial of Social Anxiety
Hy2 Need for Affection
Hy4 Somatic Complaints
Hy5 Inhibition of Aggression
Ma2 Psychomotor Acceleration
Ma4 Ego Inflation
Pa1 Persecutory Ideas
Pd1 Familial Discord
Pd2 Authority Problems
Pd3 Social Imperturbability
Pd4 Social Alienation
Sc1 Social Alienation
Sc2 Emotional Alienation
Sc3 Lack of Ego Mastery-Cognitive
Sc4 Lack of Ego Mastery-Conative
Sc5 Lack of Ego Mastery-Defective Inhibition
Sc6 Bizarre Sensory Experiences
Welsh Code based on comparable MMPI-1 scores
Welsh Code based on MMPI-2 scores
F-K Dissimulation Index
Cooke's Disturbance Index
The defaults for missing demographic data are Age: 18; Education: 12; Marital Status: Never married; Setting: Outpatient (Setting: Other on Personnel reports).
This will happen if the T score on K is less than 50T. The non-K-corrected score is not just the lack of the K correction. The non-K-corrected score is from a separate distribution from the K-corrected score. Refer to Appendixes A1 and A2 in the MMPI-2 manual for more information.
Primarily for research at this point.
The Basic Service Profile Report only provides information on the validity and clinical scales, and these are located in the first 370 items. Items beyond 370 will not be considered for the basic profile.
Yes. These scales will be valid, but any scales with items that fall beyond 370 will not be valid (e.g., Content Scales, supplementary scales).
Basic and Harris-Lingoes.
The Extended Score Report is not an interpretive report. "Invalid" is an interpretation. It is up to the clinician to make the determination of invalidity.
(Old) refers to the original MMPI order of scale elevations from highest to lowest. (New) refers to the MMPI-2 order of scale elevations from highest to lowest. The (Old) Welsh Code is based on Appendix K in the MMPI-2 manual.
The MAC-R scale has 49 items. The newer Addiction Potential Scale has 39 items. Many of the items on the Addiction Potential Scale are different from those on the MAC-R scale. The Addiction Potential items concern personality dimensions and life situations associated with substance abuse. The Addiction Potential Scale is commonly used with the Addiction Acknowledgment Scale.
Several of the MMPI-2 reference books have this information including John Graham's MMPI-2: Assessing Personality and Psychopathology (Oxford Press) and Jim Butcher's Essentials of MMPI-2 and MMPI-A Interpretation (University of Minnesota Press).
Yes, in Appendix J.
Refer to Graham, J. T., Timbrook, R. E., Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Butcher, J. N. (1991). Code-type congruence between MMPI and MMPI-2: Separating fact from artifact. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57(2), 205-215.
Yes. You can do this using Appendix K in the MMPI-2 manual. This table converts MMPI-2 raw scores to original MMPI T scores. Make sure you have the second version of the MMPI-2 manual or the updated Appendix K for use with the first version of the manual.
Only the MMPI-2 instrument has PTSD scales (normed on veterans). Both of the scales appear on the Minnesota Report.
The Megargee Classification System was recently updated for the MMPI-2 instrument and can be applied to both male and female offenders.
Information on how the MMPI-2 Megargee Classification System rules were developed can be found in an article in the December 1993, Volume 4, Number 2 edition of the MMPI-2 News & Profile newsletter put out by MMPI-2 Workshops & Symposia at the University of Minnesota (Department of Psychology, Elliott Hall, 75 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN 55455, 612-625-2879 or FAX 612-626-0080).
The manual should be purchased with any MMPI-2 first-time order. The user's guide should be purchased with any first-time order of MMPI-2 interpretive reports. The user's guide explains the sections of the interpretive report and how they were developed.
In the July 91 revision, TRIN and VRIN print out when the report is invalid because of a high F. If you are not getting TRIN and VRIN on the interpretive report, you may need to install more recent software or the report may be invalid for reasons other than a high F. The software is being changed so that TRIN and VRIN will always print.
They were changed too much in the revision; they did not measure the same constructs.
Deleted items affected that scale, so it was eliminated.
The Keene differentiates PTSD patients from psychiatric patients. The Schlenger PTSD scales separate normals from PTSD patients.
We recommend using the MMPI-A assessment with adolescents. A cautionary statement will be generated for MMPI-2 test-takers under 19 because no adolescents were included in the normative sample.
American minorities are included in the normative sample. There are no separate culture norms.
We will not be able to give a definitive answer until research has been done in this area.
Yes, see the Keller and Butcher book Assessment of Chronic Pain Patients With the MMPI-2.
1=P, 2=A, 3=I, 4=N, 0=does not fit any typology; see Costello, R. M., Hulsey, T. L., Schoenfeld, L. S., & Ramamurthy, S. (1987). P-A-I-N: A four-cluster MMPI typology for chronic pain. Pain, 30, 199-209.
Type P: This type appears to be the most pathological of the four types. Most of the scales will be significantly elevated. Type P patients are usually the least educated and most often unemployed. They have the lowest monthly income compared to the other types. Type P patients make extreme claims about physical, psychological, and social distress.
Type A: This type is uniquely characterized by a "conversion V" on the Hs, D, and Hy scales. Type A does not have any significant demographic correlates.
Type I: This type has significant elevations only on scales Hs, D, and Hy. Type I patients seem to have chronic medical histories (i.e., multiple surgeries or hospitalizations). Type I patients may not improve physically with treatment, but they appear to experience some degree of psychological benefit.
Type N: This type has normal-range profiles. The only exception may be an elevated K. Type N patients tend to be more moderate in their health claims. Also, Type N patients tend to be employed, better educated, and more responsive to treatment than other types.
Type 0: A Pain Classification of "0" signifies that the profile did not match any of the typologies. This does not mean that chronic pain is not present. (Please note that if the L scale score is greater than 65T, the program will automatically drop through the P-A-I-N classification and the client will be classified as "0.")
NCS Assessments cannot offer legal advice. Please consult your regional APA office or an attorney.
Yes, you may use up administrations of the original MMPI-2 Adult Clinical Interpretive report, but we suggest you use the revised version when you reorder. The revised version preserves the valuable features of the original report and provides better description and diagnostic comment for current test-takers. Based on additional research that has been done since the MMPI-2 instrument was introduced, new narrative sections have been added such as Profile Frequency and Profile Stability. The revised report also features additional Supplementary scales like the Marital Distress Scale (MDS) and Alcohol Potential Scale (APS), and an added Validity Scale, the Superlative (S) scale. Finally, additional setting-specific indices help you fine-tune your interpretation to your patient's setting. When you place your next order for MMPI-2 Interpretive reports, remember to order the MMPI-2 Adult Clinical System - Revised Interpretive Report.